Wednesday, October 22, 2008
i hope after this we also can do co-operation no matter for the next sem we didn't take english for social science anymore.i also hope after this we also can contact each other weather in this blog or phone. other than that, i also hope when we meet after this, at least say hi to make sure we still remember each other...
here, i want to thank to all of you because of you all co-operation in our group. thank you because want to become member to fantastic group. last but not least, thank you to puan rozmel because teach us very well.
here also, i want to say sorry if anything i did make all of you not happy or maybe become angry or what ever...sorry...
finally, i want to say good luck to all of you in our becoming final exam...
do the best and remember that puan rozmel ever said that this paper is not easy to failed...haha..
guard you'll health and don't be tension...
hope we all can get a good result in this paper and the others paper too...
that all, thank you...
first, i hope you all succes in final exam...
and then don't forget me k..
i miss you all....
we have done the report,presentation,esei the project and all we done together
so i;m very happy with you all
thanks pn rozmel teach we all
you are good teacher and i love you...
bye....see next sem..
i want to thanks for our group member because you all gave participate on our group for the project..we have done all part of project together. i hope we all can get good result in final exam. group discussion also make our relationship among the group member so close. i hope we all still remember this moment in BI FOR SCIENCE SOCIAL class. good luck for everyone...
Tuesday, October 21, 2008
hi, all my friends. I hope all of us happy with our presentation and our Blogs.
our group so fantastic whatever we do and whenever we go.
i hope all of us don't forget about fantastic group since our group started.
do the best for final exam 2008/2009.
smile always and happy in your life...
Monday, October 20, 2008
actually, i want to thank to all of you about today presentation.
i know we do not do very well in our group presentation today, but in my opinion, we do well in the other ways, that is in our team cooperation and spirit.
we do discussion, give suggestion and opinion about what and how we want to do for the group presentation. think about it...
although sometime we have a different suggestion and opinion about each part, but we discuss again by together to make sure we can get the true point or supporting detail to support that part. lastly, we got the true ones...is it right...?
actually, what we had done today is our own mistake and it is under our own responsibilities because we do not prepare ourself early...we do the last minutes preparation...huh...
thats all what i want to say about our group presentation. if you all have anything to add in, please comment my post to give your opinion about our group presentation...
before i forgot, please make sure all of you log in to our blog to give your comment to all the topic or title...actually, we must do discussion in our blog also...
then, to fathi, please make sure our final draf are ready...we try to submit it by this wednesday...okay...
Wednesday, October 15, 2008
assalamualaikum and hi to all my group members.
please prepare your own power point based on your own point to present it on monday, october 20.
after do the power point please email it to fathi adha. we combine our power point slide to become 1 folder.
Saturday, September 20, 2008
We have the effects of air pollution and so on. Know here we will talk about way to overcome air pollution. Everyone can play a part to reduce air pollution. There are many ways to overcome the air pollution such as reduce vehicle emissions, reduce industrial emissions, reduce emissions from power stations, use renewable energy, and reduce the use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs). (http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111401/dealing_air_pollution.htm).
First way to overcome air pollution is reduce vehicle emissions. This can be done by installing catalytic converters in every car so that the amount of toxic gases released is reduced. A more effective way is to reduce the number of vehicles on the road. For example, in
The second way is more to industrial and the governments responsible. They must reduce industrial emission to overcome air pollution. Industries can reduce the amount of air pollutants they release by installing scrubbers, which are capable of removing up to 90 % of sulphur dioxide from waste gases. (http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111401/dealing_air_pollution.htm).
Other than that, we also need to reduce emissions from power stations. This method concerns us, consumers of electricity, greatly. If electricity is used, less fossil fuels have to be burnt, and less air pollution would be emitted. We can do our part to reduce air pollution by conserving electricity at home, at school and at work. (http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111401/dealing_air_pollution.htm).
We also can use the renewable energy to overcome the air pollution in our country or world. Renewable energy such as wind and hydroelectric, does not pollute, unlike traditional sources of energy that depends on the combustion of fossil fuels. (http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111401/dealing_air_pollution.htm).
Last but not list to overcome air pollution is by reducing the use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs). The effects of ozone depletion are disastrous. Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs is the gas that is responsible for ozone depletion. By reducing the emission of CFCs, we can significantly slow down the rate of ozone depletion. Use 'green' products which utilizes ozone-friendly in places of CFCs. (http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111401/dealing_air_pollution.htm). Beside that, we can place the CFCs to Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) to overcome the air pollution.
Friday, September 19, 2008
Hai my friend.
now i can give you all a few definition of air pollution which i get from reference book for our project...if you all have any idea about the definition of air pollution please post in our blog....
DEFINITION OF AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution is defined as the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants ( pollutants ) in quantities and duration that can injure human, plants or animal life or property ( materials ) or which unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life or the conduct of business.
( David H.F. Liu, Bela G. Liptak : 2000)
In other meaning, air pollution is defined the presence in the air of any abnormal material or property that reduces the usefulness of the air resources.
( Joe O. Ledbetter )
On the other hand, air pollution also as defined as the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants such as dust, fumes, gaseous, mist, odor, smoke or vapor in quantities of characteristic and of duration such as to be injurious to human, plants or animal life or to property or which unreasonably interfere with the comfortable enjoyment of life and property.
( Henry C. Perkins : 1974 )
Beside that, air pollution also mean the presence in the atmosphere of solid particles, liquid droplets or gaseous compounds which are not normally present or which are present in a concentration substantially greater than normal.
( Martin Crawford )
Sunday, September 14, 2008
3.0 AIR POLLUTION CAUSES
Air pollution is not just a “city problem”. Many air pollutants are dispersed over areas hundred of miles from their source where they affect many different ecosystems. These pollutants often remain toxic in the environment for a very long time where they continue to affect ponds, streams, fields, and forests. So, many causes of air pollution and that’s causes can separate to two parts are natural pollution and human activities.
3.1 Natural Pollution
Most air pollution is the result of energy consumption. Specifically, the burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity or to power transportation vehicles is the main cause this serious, but preventable, environmental hazard. Example for burning of fossil fuels is forest fires. Well, as you are probably aware, air pollution takes many different forms and arises from a variety of sources. In terms of overall range and extents of impacts. However, burning of fossil fuels is the largest source of air pollutants. These fuels cause smog, acid rain, soot and particulates increases, greenhouse gas emissions, and dispersal of some heavy metal contaminants. Burning of fossil fuels cause acid rain.
Volcanoes commonly displays a distinctive pattern of behavior. Some mild eruptions merely discharge steam and other gases, whereas other eruptions quietly extrude quantities of lava. Other than free oxygen, generated by photosynthesis, all atmospheric gases were derived from inside the earth and released by volcanic eruptions. The gaseous portion of magma varies from ~1 to 5% of the total weight. Water vapor constitutes 70-90%. The remaining gases include CO2, SO2, and trace amounts of of N, H, CO, S, Ar, Cl, and F. These subordinate gases can combine with hydrogen and water to produce numerous toxic compounds.
Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem attracting the attention of many across the globe. It is a common phenomenon occurring mostly in flat, bare areas; dry, sandy soils; or anywhere the soil is loose, dry, and finely granulated. Wind erosion damages land and natural vegetation by removing soil from one place and depositing it in another. It causes soil loss, dryness and deterioration of soil structure, nutrient and productivity losses, air pollution, and sediment transport and deposition.
Radiation is natural. It's in our food, in the air, water, and soil. It's even in our bodies. It comes from unstable atoms-tiny particles of matter. As these atoms break up, they produce invisible energy waves or particles. Our bodies absorb a small amount of this radiation every hour, every day, every week. A person living directly outside a nuclear power facility would receive approximately one additional milligram per year.
3.2 Human Activity
Burning of petroleum in car engines and other petrol runned vehicles releases Carbon monoxide and Carbon dioxide gasses. Carbon Monoxide causes health problems and prolonged exposure to it may result to death. This is so because it inhibits haemoglobin in red blood cells making it incapable of carrying oxygen. Carbon dioxide gas along with other green house gasses such as methane is responsible for greenhouse effect, a process which warms the earth making its climate bearable and capable of sustaining life. But increasing levels of carbon dioxide is believed to result into Global warming.
Photochemical smog is also appearing in regions of the tropics and subtropics where savanna grasses are periodically burned. Smog's unpleasant properties result from the irradiation by sunlight of hydrocarbons caused primarily by unburned gasoline emitted by automobiles and other combustion sources. The products of photochemical reactions includes organic particles, ozone, aldehydes, ketones, peroxyacetyl nitrate, organic acids, and other oxidants. Ozone is a gas created by nitrogen dioxide or nitric oxide when exposed to sunlight.
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) have no natural source, but were entirely synthesized for such diverse uses as refrigerants, aerosol propellants and cleaning solvents. Their creation was in 1928 and since then concentrations of CFCs in the atmosphere have been rising. Due to the discovery that they are able to destroy stratospheric ozone, a global effort to halt their production was undertaken and was extremely successful. So much so that levels of the major CFCs are now remaining level or declining.
Electric power plants are the single largest industrial source of some of the worst air pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that more than 120 million Americans live in areas where the air is unhealthy. Yet the Bush administration's air pollution plan would gut existing health protections and do nothing to curb global warming.
Thursday, September 11, 2008
The title of this paper is air pollution. In this paper, we will discuss the definition, causes, effects and ways to overcome air pollution.
. Human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to human or other living organism, or damage the environment.
2.0 Sources of air pollution.
2.1 Carbon dioxide
2.2 Sulfur and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
2.3 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
3.0 Causes/contributing factors
3.1 Natural phenomena
· Volcanoes, forest fires, dust storms.
3.2 Human activities
· Using aerosol cans, personal vehicle and commercial vehicles, factories activities (radioactive)
· Cause short-term such as eye and throat irritation.
4.2 Animals and plant-life
· Such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone
· Cause direct damage to leaves of crup plants.
· Difficulty in breathing, wheezing, caughing and aggravation of existing respiratory.
· Example, prolonged exposure of the vegetation.
4.5 Acid Rain
· The phenomena accurs when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the burning of fossil fuels.
5.0 Ways to overcome
5.1 Use energy efficiently and switching to alternative energy sources.
5.2 Decrease using vehicle on the road.
5.3 Avoid open burning.
5.4 Replant trees and avoid purchasing products.
The aspects that were discussed in this paper are definition, sources, causes, effects and ways to overcome air pollution.
We must avoid or decrease the air pollution and the other pollutions to make our life better. We should do cooperate to solve this problem because we need to breathing in the fresh air.
Friday, August 1, 2008
-Human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the environment.
-As the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants(pollutions) in quantities and duration.
(edited by David H. F. liu, Bela G. Liptak, Lewis Publisher, 2000)
2. SOURCE OF AIR POLLUTION
-various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants in the atmosphere. This source can be classified into 2 major categories which are:
(a) Anthropogenic source (human activities)
* mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel
(b) Natural sources
* large areas of land with little or no vegetation
* smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfres.
3. CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION
(a) Energy consumption
* the burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity or to power transportation vehicles.
(b) Acid rain
* significant air pollution problem that affects rural, suburban and urban areas that are down-wind of major industrial areas.
(c) Global warming
* happening now and affects everyone.
4. EFFECT OF AIR POLLUTION
(a) Peoples, animals and plant-life
* can cause short-term effects such as eye and throat irritation.
* such as cancer and damage to the body's immune, neurological, reproductive and respiratory systems.
* due to their size and the fact that they are in the process of developing are at greater health related risk.
(c) Atmospheric effects
* changes in urban climatological characteristic
* increased frequency of rainfall and attendant meteorological phenomena.
* global warming.
(cource: edited by David H. F. liu, Bela G. Liptak, Lewis Publisher,2000)
(d) Effects of topography on air motion.
* micro and mesoscale air motion near point and area sources.
(cource: edited by David H. F. liu, Bela G. Liptak, Lewis Publisher,2000)
5. HOW TO SOLVE
(a) Using energy more efficiently and switching to alternative energy sources.
(b) Decrease using vehicles on the road.
(c) Avoid open burning.
(d) Using Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC).
(e) Recycle newspapers, aluminiums, and other materials.
(f) Replant trees and avoid purchasing products.
-Air pollution is one type of pollution in the world. We must avoid or decrease the air pollution or other pollution to make our life better. We must cooperation to solve air pollution because we need to breath in the fresh air.
Tuesday, July 29, 2008
hi, to all my friends....
do you know what causes air pollution? one of them is smoke from factories and motor vehicles. Thats smoke bring out of carbon dioxide to air and give bad impact to our life. when over out carbon dioxide to air, human especially lack of oxygen.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere. Major sources of CO2 are fossil fuels burning and deforestation. CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space. This produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night. Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surface.
Other that causes is sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is produced by combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal and fuel oils. Also, in the process of producing sulfuric acid and in metallurgical process involving ores that contain sulfur. Sulfur oxides can injure man, plants and materials. At sufficiently high concentrations, sulfur dioxide irritates the upper respiratory tract of human beings because potential effect of sulfur dioxide is to make breathing more difficult by causing the finer air tubes of the lung to constrict.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also air pollution causes. CFCs are lowering the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. Spray cans, discarded or leaking refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and the burning plastic foam products release the CFCs into the atmosphere. Depending on the type, CFCs stay in the atmosphere from 22 to 111 years. Chlorofluorocarbons move up to the stratosphere gradually over several decades. Under high energy ultra violet (UV) radiation, they break down and release chlorine atoms, which speed up the breakdown of ozone (O3) into oxygen gas (O2). Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as Freons, are greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Photochemical air pollution is commonly referred to as "smog".
Other thats is smog. Photochemical smog is also appearing in regions of the tropics and subtropics where savanna grasses are periodically burned. Smog's unpleasant properties result from the irradiation by sunlight of hydrocarbons caused primarily by unburned gasoline emitted by automobiles and other combustion sources. The products of photochemical reactions includes organic particles, ozone, aldehydes, ketones, peroxyacetyl nitrate, organic acids, and other oxidants. Ozone is a gas created by nitrogen dioxide or nitric oxide when exposed to sunlight. Ozone causes eye irritation, impaired lung function, and damage to trees and crops. Another form of smog is called industrial smog. This smog is created by burning coal and heavy oil that contain sulfur impurities in power plants, industrial plants, etc. The smog consists mostly of a mixture of sulfur dioxide and fog. Suspended droplets of sulfuric acid are formed from some of the sulfur dioxide, and a variety of suspended solid particles.
air pullution have many effects.For example,effects to health,to children and everyting...
First,the health effects caused by air pollution may range from subtle biochemical physiological changes to difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health status and genetics.
Secondly,effects on cystic fibrosis.air pollution had an increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations and decrease in lung function. Patients were examined before the study for amounts of specific pollutants like P. aeruginosa or B. cepacia as well as their socioeconomic standing. .During the time of the study 117 deaths were associated with air pollution. A trend was noticed that patients living closer or in large metropolitan areas to be close to medical help also had higher level of pollutants found in their system because of more emissions in larger cities. With cystic fibrosis patients already being born with decreased lung function everyday pollutants such as smoke emissions from automobiles, tobacco smoke and improper use of indoor heating devices could add to the dissemination of lung function.
Lastly,effects on children.Cities around the world with high exposure to air pollutants has the possibility of children living within them to develop asthma ,pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections as well as a low initial birth rate. Protective measures to ensure the youths health is being taken in countries such as New Delhi where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the “pea-soup” fog.Those pollutants included: ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead. Because children are outdoors more and have higher minute ventilation they are more susceptible to the dangers of air pollution.
ok I hope you all understand about air pollution effects...thats all.
Monday, July 28, 2008
now i can introduce about air pollution. Gaseous, liquid, or solid substances which (when present in sufficient concentration, for a sufficient time, and under certain conditions) tend to interfere with human comfort, health or welfare, and cause environmental damage. Air pollution causes acid rain, ozone depletion, photochemical smog, and other such phenomenon. air pollution is in the Environment & Pollution Control and Material & Occupational Safety subjects.
air pollution appears in the definitions of the following terms: particulate matter, hydrocarbon, emissions trading, bubble concept, area source of pollution and decipol. air pollution is defined as the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminats ( pollutants ) in quantities and duration that can injure human, plant, or animals life or property ( materials ) or which unreasonably interferes with the enjoyment of life or the conduct of business. examples of traditional contaminants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydocarbons, volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ), hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, smoke, and haze.
Sunday, July 20, 2008
if you all agree choose this topic air polution,i will introduce what air pollution.
first,air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the environment. Air pollution causes deaths and respiratory disease. Air pollution is often identified with major stationary sources, but the greatest source of emissions is mobile sources, mainly automobiles. Gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to global warming, have recently gained recognition as pollutants by climate scientists, while they also recognize that carbon dioxide is essential for plant life through photosynthesis.I hope,we are agree this topic air pollution k.thank you.....
Friday, July 18, 2008
as you all know that we choose a general topic for our presentation right...?
after that we also agree to choose the topic about environmental issues...
here, I want to suggest to all of you to do the specific topic about environment. I suggest that we try to talk about air pollution...
it is because, we can find more information about air pollution, either in the news paper, books, magazines and many.
after that we always saw that there are many causes of air pollution, so it can make us easy to elaborate than.
last but not list, hope you all also can give the suggestions about our topic...
NORSHIZREEN BINTI MORSHIDI
Thursday, July 17, 2008
first, i want to give introduction about air pollution. i do know with specific topic you want to choose but i would like give you some information about air pollution. air pollution have 2 types. first types is the release of particle ( burning, smoke and fuel burning from automobile ) and the second types is the release of noxious gases ( sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapor.
ok, you all can continue about causes and effect from air pollution later...good luck..